Magister Atrium in Political Science, University of Oslo; Fulbright Scholar, University of California at Berkeley. Formerly: Director, International Department, Norwegian Red Cross; Head, Development Studies, Henry Dunant Institute; 1990-97, State Secretary, Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs; 1997-2002, Secretary-General's Special Advisor on Columbia, United Nations; since 2005, current position. Active participant, peace negotiations leading to September 1993 Oslo Accord. 1996, directed peace talks leading to resolution of Guatemalan civil war. Formerly: Chair, Amnesty International, Norway; Vice-Chair, International Executive Committee, Amnesty International.