Bachelor's in Economics, Univ. of Delhi, India; MS and PhD in Economics, Univ. of Pennsylvania, US. Formerly: Dean of Graduate Studies and teacher, Center for Development Economics, Williams College, Massachusetts; teacher, Univ. of Pennsylvania. Currently, Director, Social Protection and Labour, World Bank; responsible for overseeing labour markets, social safety nets, pensions and disability issues, including research and operations in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Africa and the Middle East; focuses on employment, labour markets, social sector reforms, poverty reduction, institutions, public sector reform, governance, growth strategies and programme evaluation. Author of articles, papers and books including: From Red to Gray on Aging Populations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union; Enhancing Job Opportunities in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union; World Development Report (1995 and 2002); Better Governance for Development in the Middle East and North Africa.