Full report
Publié: 20 octobre 2020

The Future of Jobs Report 2020

User's Guide: How to read the country and industry profiles

Country Profiles

1. Hard data contextual indicators

Education & skills/Jobs & work

This section aims to provide the reader with the latest available data from contextual indicators on education, skills, jobs and work. To allow for an understanding of the indicators of different nature and magnitude, the contextual indicators not expressed as a percentage have been normalized on a 0 to 100 scale, providing a ‘progress score’ for each indicator.

The total working age population is displayed in the top right corner of the page. The working-age population is the number of people aged 25 and over. In addition to using a minimum age threshold, certain countries also apply a maximum age limit.

Period: 2019 or latest available data (accessed September 2020).

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization.

Education & skills

Digital skills among active population:
Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the Executive Opinion Survey question “In your country, to what extent does the active population possess sufficient digital skills (e.g. computer skills, basic coding, digital reading)?” [1 = not all; 7 = to a great extent]. Results converted to a 0-100 score called ‘progress score’, where 100 corresponds to the best possible frontier and 0 to the worst possible frontier.

Period: 2019–2020 weighted average or most recent period available.

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey 2020.

Attainment of basic education:
Percentage of the population aged 25 and over with at least a secondary education (includes ISCED 2-4). This data is cumulative, which means that those with tertiary education are counted in the figures.

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed September 2020).

Source: UNESCO, Institute for Statistics, Education Indicators.

Business relevance of basic education:
Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the Executive Opinion Survey question “In your country, to what extent do secondary-education graduates possess the skills needed by businesses?" [1 = not all; 7 = to a great extent]. Results converted to a 0-100 score called ‘progress score’, where 100 corresponds to the best possible frontier and 0 to the worst possible frontier.

Period: 2019–2020 weighted average or most recent period available.

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey 2020.

Attainment of advanced education:
Percentage of the population aged 25 and over with a tertiary education (includes ISCED 5-8).

Period: 2018 or latest available data (accessed September 2020).

Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics, Education Indicators.

Business relevance of tertiary education:
Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the Executive Opinion Survey question “In your country, to what extent do university graduates possess the skills needed by businesses?” [1 = not all; 7 = to a great extent]. Results converted to a 0-100 score called ‘progress score, where 100 corresponds to the best possible frontier and 0 to the worst possible frontier.

Period: 2019–2020 weighted average or most recent period available.

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey 2020.

Supply of business-relevant skills:
Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the Executive Opinion Survey question “In your country, to what extent can companies find people with the skills required to fill their vacancies?” [1 = not at all; 7 = to a great extent]. Results converted to a 0-100 score called ‘progress score’, where 100 corresponds to the best possible frontier and 0 to the worst possible frontier.

Period: 2019–2020 weighted average or most recent period available.

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey 2020.

Unemployment rate among workers with basic education:
The unemployment rate among workers with basic education is the number of persons who are unemployed as a percentage of the total number of employed and unemployed persons (i.e. the labour force). Data by level of education is provided on the highest level of education completed (includes ISCED 2-4).

Period: 2019 or latest available data (accessed September 2020).

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization.

Unemployment rate among workers with advanced education:
The unemployment rate among workers with advanced education is the number of persons who are unemployed as a percentage of the total number of employed and unemployed persons (i.e. the labour force). Data by level of education is provided on the highest level of education completed. (includes ISCED 5-8).

Period: 2019 or latest available data (accessed September 2020).

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization.

Share of youth not in employment, education or training:
This is the share of youth not in employment, education or training (NEET). Values represented are ILO modelled estimates.
Please note that imputed observations are not based on national data, are subject to high uncertainty and should not be used for country comparisons or rankings. This indicator refers to the proportion of youth who are not in employment and not in education or training. For statistical purposes, youth are defined as persons between the ages of 15 and 24 years. For more information, refer to the indicator description and the ILO estimates and projections methodological note.

Period: November 2019.

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization .

Jobs & Work

Labour force participation:
The labour force participation rate is the proportion of the working-age population actively engaged in the labour market. The share of the population either in employment or looking for employment as a percentage of the total working age population.

Period: 2019 or latest available data (accessed September 2020)

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization.

Vulnerable employment:
Vulnerable employment is defined as contributing family workers and own-account workers as a percentage of total employment.

Period: 2020 or latest available data (accessed September 2020)

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization.

Working conditions impact of gig economy:
Score computed based on the average response of companies operating in this country to the Executive Opinion Survey question “In your country, what is the impact of the online gig economy on working conditions (e.g., working time, remuneration, stability)?” [1= Significantly worsen working conditions; 7= Significantly improves working conditions]. Results converted to a 0-100 score called ‘progress score’, where 100 corresponds to the best possible frontier and 0 to the worst possible frontier.

Period: 2019–2020 weighted average or most recent period available.

Source: World Economic Forum, Executive Opinion Survey 2020.

Unemployment rate (latest annual), latest available quarterly), (latest monthly):
The latest annual unemployment rate is calculated by expressing the number of unemployed persons as a percentage of the total number of persons in the labour force. The labour force (formerly known as the economically active population) is the sum of the number of persons employed and the number of persons unemployed. Thus, the measurement of the unemployment rate requires the measurement of both employment and unemployment. The unemployed comprise all persons of working age who were: a) without work during the reference period, i.e. were not in paid employment or self-employment; b) currently available for work, i.e. were available for paid employment or self-employment during the reference period; and c) seeking work, i.e. had taken specific steps in a specified recent period to seek paid employment or self-employment. Future starters, that is, persons who did not look for work but have a future labour market stake (made arrangements for a future job start) are also counted as unemployed, as well as participants in skills training or retraining schemes within employment promotion programmes, who on that basis, were “not in employment”, not “currently available” and did not “seek employment” because they had a job offer to start within a short subsequent period generally not greater than three months and persons “not in employment” who carried out activities to migrate abroad in order to work for pay or profit but who were still waiting for the opportunity to leave.

Period: Latest available data for each period (accessed September 2020).

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization.

Unemployment rate (2019-2020 Q2 change, (2019-2020 Q2 change by gender):
These values represent the change in unemployment rate from 2019 year-end to Q2 2020, using the figures sourced above. We also featured these figures above broken down by gender.

Period: Latest available data for each period (accessed September 2020).

Source: ILOstat, International Labour Organization.

2. Impact of COVID-19 on companies’ strategy

This bar chart shows the top five measures organizations are planning on implementing in response to the current COVID-19 outbreak as a share of survey respondents from companies operating in the country. It is based on the responses to the following question “In response to the current outbreak, which of the following measures has your company implemented or is planning to implement across the Organizationorganization?” from the Future of Jobs Survey.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

3. Technology Adoption

This bar chart represents the share of survey respondents from companies operating in the country who indicated that, by 2025, their company was “likely” or “very likely” (on a 5-point scale) to have adopted the stated technology as part of its growth strategy. For a more detailed discussion of each technology, please refer to the “Technological adoption” section in chapter 2 of the report.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

4. Emerging and redundant job roles

This table provides an overview of job roles expected to see an increase and decrease in demand across the country over the 2020–2025 period. The individual job roles listed are for illustrative purposes and report the job roles most frequently cited by survey respondents from companies operating in the country. Categorization of job roles is adapted from the O*NET labour market information system (see Appendix A: Report Methodology for details).

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

5. Emerging Skills

The table provides the list of skills the country respondents have selected as being increasingly important within their Organizationorganization. It is based on the responses to the following question “Keeping in mind the tasks that will be performed by the key roles in your organization, in the next four years would you expect an increase or decrease in the use of the following skills by individuals?” from the Future of Jobs Survey. The skills are ranked by frequency and ranked from 1 to 15. The full list of skills is based on the O*NET classification and available in the appendix section of this report.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

Current skills in focus of existing reskilling/upskilling programmes

The table provides the list of skills that are the focus of existing company reskilling/upskilling programmes for companies based in the country. It is based on the responses to the following question “Keeping in mind your current strategic direction, select the top 10 skill clusters that you are currently focusing your reskilling/upskilling efforts on?” from the Future of Jobs Survey. The skills are ranked from 1 to 15, with 1 being the skill for which most organizations offer training. The full list of skills is based on the O*NET classification and available in the appendix section of this report.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

7. Average reskilling needs

The treemap shows the estimated time needed to reskill each share of the workforce that needs reskilling within the country. It is based on the responses to the following question “Bearing in mind the evolving skill demand, how long do you expect the reskilling/upskilling of your employees to take?” from the Future of Jobs Survey. Respondents were asked to provide as share of their workforce for each duration of reskilling/upskilling.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

8. Responses to shifting skill needs

The bar chart shows the top strategies organizations will undertake to address the shifting skills demand as a share of survey responses from companies operating in the country. It is based on the responses to the following multiple-choice question “How likely is your organization to undertake the following strategies to address the shifting skills demand?” from the Future of Jobs Survey.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

9. Projected use of training providers

The chart shows the projected proportion of the use of different training providers for the future training programmes of companies based in the country. It is based on the responses to the following question “In your future retraining programme, what proportion of training provision will come from the options mentioned below?” from the Future of Jobs Survey.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

Industry Profiles

1. Average share of workers at risk of displacement/Expected redeployment success rate of displaced workers/Average skills instability among workforce

The share of workers at risk of displacement was calculated by computing the mean response of surveyed employers operating in this industry to the Future of Jobs Survey question: “What proportion of your global workforce do these employees which are likely to become increasingly redundant in your organization represent in the next four years?”

The expected redeployment success rate was calculated by computing the mean response from surveyed employers from this industry to the Future of Jobs Survey question “What percentage of employees with increasingly redundant skillsets do you expect to successfully redeploy within your organization after they have completed their reskilling programme?”

The average skills instability among the workforce was calculated by computing the mean response from surveyed employers from this industry to the Future of Jobs Survey question “Keeping in mind the tasks that will be performed by your employees, in the next four years what proportion of the core skills required to perform their roles well will be different”.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

2. Technology adoption in industry

This bar chart represents the share of survey respondents from companies operating in the industry who indicated that, by 2025, their company was “likely” or “very likely” (on a 5-point scale) to have adopted the stated technology as part of its growth strategy by 2025. For a more detailed discussion of each technology, please refer to the “Technology adoption” section in chapter 2 of the report.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

3. Emerging Skills

The table provides the list of skills the industry respondents have selected as being increasingly important within their organization. It is based on the responses to the following question “Keeping in mind the tasks that will be performed by the key roles in your organization, in the next four years would you expect an increase or decrease in the use of the following skills by individuals?” from the Future of Jobs Survey. The skills are ranked by frequency and ranked from 1 to 15. The full list of skills is based on the O*NET classification and available in the appendix section of this report.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

4. Impact of COVID-19 on companies’ strategy

This bar chart shows the top 5 measures organizations are planning on implementing in response to the current COVID-19 outbreak as a share of survey respondents from the industry. It is based on the responses to the following question “In response to the current outbreak, which of the following measures has your company implemented or is planning to implement across the Organizationorganization?” from the Future of Jobs Survey.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

5. Emerging and redundant job roles

This table provides an overview of job roles expected to experience an increase and decrease in demand within this industry over the 2020–2025 period. The individual job roles listed are for illustrative purposes and report the job roles most frequently cited by survey respondents from companies operating in the industry. Categorization of job roles is adapted from the O*NET labour market information system (please see Appendix A: Report Methodology for details).

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

6. Barriers to adoption of new technologies

This bar chart shows the most common barriers companies face when adopting new technologies. It is based on the responses to the following multiple-choice question “What are the top economic and social barriers your organization experiences when introducing new technologies?” from the Future of Jobs Survey. This bar is ranked by frequency of responses by companies surveyed from this industry.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

7. Expected impact on workforce

This bar chart shows the expected impact of the current growth strategy of companies operating in this industry on their workforce in the next four years. It is based on the responses to the following multiple-choice question “To deliver on your organization’s current growth strategy in the next four years, your organization would need to?” from the Future of Jobs Survey.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

8. Augmentation of key job tasks by 2025

The bar chart depicts the share of time that will be performed by humans compared to machines by 2024 for each task. It is based on the responses to the following question “Currently, what proportion of time spent doing tasks in your organization is spent by your employees performing the work?” from the Future of Jobs Survey. This stacked bar chart is ranked by share of time spent doing tasks by machines.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

9. Current skills in focus of existing reskilling/upskilling programmes

The table provides the list of skills that are the focus of existing industry company reskilling/upskilling programmes. It is based on the responses to the following question “Keeping in mind your current strategic direction, select the top 10 skill clusters that you are currently focusing your reskilling/upskilling efforts on?from the Future of Jobs Survey. The skills are ranked from 1 to 10 by frequency of responses by companies surveyed from this industry, with 1 being the skill for which most organzations offer training. The full list of skills is based on the O*NET classification and available in the appendix section of this report.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

10. Average reskilling needs

The treemap shows the estimated time needed to reskill each share of the workforce that needs reskilling within the industry. It is based on the responses to the following question “Bearing in mind the evolving skill demand, how long do you expect the reskilling/upskilling of your employees to take?” from the Future of Jobs Survey. Respondents were asked to provide as share of their workforce for each duration of reskilling/upskilling.

Period: 2020.

Source: World Economic Forum, Future of Jobs Survey 2020.

Abonnez-vous aux mises à jour

Une mise à jour hebdomadaire de ce qui est à l'Agenda mondial

© 2021 World Economic Forum

Politique de confidentialité et conditions d’utilisation du service